Marks distribution

• Written = 200 (Formative- 20+MCQ (SBA+MTF) 40+(SAQ+SEQ) 140)
• SOE = 100
• Practical = 100 (OPSE- 50+ Traditional- 40+ Assignment- 10)


Biophysics & Biomolecules

• Introduction to Biochemistry.
• Concept of solutions.
• Colloids and crystalloids.
Concept of PH and Buffer
• Concept of the isotope.
• Concept of Biomolecules: Carbohydrates.
• Amino acids and proteins.
• Lipids and fatty acids.
• Enzymes.


Food, Nutrition, Vitamins, and Minerals

• Basic concepts of food, nutrition, and dietary principles.
• Energy balance and calculation of energy equivalent of food.
• Nutritional aspects of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, Fibers.
• Vitamins and Minerals.
• Common Nutritional disorders.


Digestion, Absorption, Bioenergetics, and Metabolism


• Introduction to Metabolism
• Biological oxidation, respiratory chain, and oxidative phosphorylation
• High and low-energy compounds. ATP
• Phase of metabolism (digestion, absorption, and intermediary metabolism)
• Glycolysis
• Citric acid cycle
• Glycogenesis and glycogenolysis
• Hexose monophosphate shunt
• Gluconeogenesis
• Blood glucose homeostasis
• Cori cycle


• Digestion and absorption of lipids.
• Blood lipids and pathways of lipid metabolism.
• Triglyceride metabolism.
• Beta-oxidation.
• Ketogenesis and ketosis.
• Lipid transport and lipoprotein metabolism.
• Eicosanoids.


• Digestion and absorption of protein
• Protein turnover, common amino acid pool, nitrogen balance
• Pathways of protein metabolism
• Deamination and transamination.
• fate of amino acid in the body
• Source and disposal of ammonia


• Role of liver in overall metabolisms.
• Integrated metabolism
• Metabolic adjustment of fed, fasting, and starvation state.


Renal biochemistry, body fluid, electrolytes, and acid-base balance

Renal biochemistry in relation to water, electrolytes, and acid-base homeostasis

• Total body water and body fluid compartments. Consumption of body fluids.
• Regulation of normal water balance.
• Major electrolytes and their homeostasis.
• Volume disorders
• Acid base homeostasis & disorders.


Clinical Biochemistry and Clinical Endocrinology


• Introduction to clinical biochemistry.
• Normal biochemical values in conventional and SI. Units.
• Clinical enzymology related to liver and myocardial diseases.
• Lipid profiles and dyslipoproteinemias.
• Organ function tests (liver, kidney & thyroid)
• Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus
• Bilirubin metabolism and jaundice.
• proteinuria and microalbuminuria


Fundamentals of Molecular Biology and genetics


• Basic concepts of molecular biology.
• Nucleic acid, nucleosides, nucleotides.
• Replication, transcription, and translation.
• Gene, genome, allele, trait, genetic code, mutation, mutagens.
• PCR. DNA, cloning, recombinant DNA technology
• Biomedical aspects of medical
• biotechnology: understanding & application.


Biochemistry Practical

• Identification of laboratory glass wares and equipment.
• Preparation of solutions.
• Sample collection & processing.
• Photometry.
• Estimation, demonstration of technique, calculation, and interpretation of result:
• Blood glucose estimation.
• Serum cholesterol estimation.
• Serum urea
• Serum creatinine
• Serum total protein
• Serum bilirubin
• Abnormal constituents of urine and their clinical significance.